Journal of Animal Behaviour and Biometeorology
Journal of Animal Behaviour and Biometeorology
Review Article Open Access

Lighting, density, and dietary strategies to improve poultry behavior, health, and production

Karim El-Sabrout, Ahmed El-Deek, Sohail Ahmad, Muhammad Usman, Maiko Roberto Tavares Dantas, João Batista Freire Souza-Junior

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Poultry production is the most rapidly expanding agricultural industry. Consumer awareness of animal welfare has grown in recent years, and as a result, consideration for higher-quality meat production has increased. Environmental changes impact agricultural activity, including poultry production. These changes have raised serious worries that will severely impact poultry health and productivity due to climate change. In light of current environmental changes, determining the ideal environmental conditions for animals is a difficult challenge for researchers and breeders. When investigating the best environmental conditions for better poultry rearing and production, we must consider lighting, density, and dietary factors. These factors have separate and interactive effects on birds’ behavior and performance. Understanding animal behavior is a key criterion for assessing animal welfare. It can assist breeders in better managing farm animals by reflecting the adaptability of the animal body to the surrounding environmental conditions. However, the optimal light quality and quantity, density, and feeding levels for poultry farming, particularly for chickens, are still a source of considerable debate among researchers and breeders. Therefore, this review discussed the current practical strategies for improving poultry behavior, health, and production through lighting, density, and feeding factors.


animal husbandry, bird, feeding, lighting color, welfare


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