Journal of Animal Behaviour and Biometeorology
Journal of Animal Behaviour and Biometeorology
Research Article Open Access

The protective effect of wild mustard (Sinapis arvensis L.) pollen seeds against the toxicity of a solvent (EGME) in Wistar rats

Leila Hamdi, Samir Djemli, Fatma Zohra Arkoub, Rahma Boukarine, Kamel Khelili, Cherif Abdennour, Abdelkrim Tahraoui

Downloads: 3
Views: 1314


Environmental pollution is the unfavorable alteration of our environment, wholly or mainly as a by-product of human actions, by the direct or indirect effects of changes in energy patterns, radiation levels, the chemical and physical constitution, and the abundance of the organisms. Thus, the environment's pollution is one of the most severe problems humanity and other forms of life face today on our planet, and this population makes severe disruption. The xenobiotic substances responsible for this pollution are numerous and diverse due to multiple human activities that can be the source. However, attention mainly focuses on fertilizers, pesticides, heavy metals, and certain petrochemicals of significant consumption, such as solvents. The purpose of this study is to highlight the reprotoxic and hepatotoxic effects of Ethylene Glycol Monoethyl Ether (EGME) on male Wistar rats. Male Wistar rats were exposed to Ethylene Glycol Monomethyl Ether alone (EGME) (500 mg/kg), combined with the aqueous extract of the pollen grains of Sinapis arvensis (P-EGME) (300 mg/kg), in addition to the control (T) and positive control (P) groups for a period of 4 weeks by gavage, to estimate the protective role of this plant against the intoxication of EGME. The results show that EGME can induce reprotoxic effects revealed by a reduction in testes and epididymis mass accompanied by decreased male fertility indicators (sperm concentration). The results also show that treatment with EGME caused a reduction in the red blood cell number, hemoglobin and hematocrit rate, white blood cells in the treated groups compared to the control groups. The present study revealed that treatment with Ethylene Glycol Monoethyl Ether (EGME) under the same experimental conditions could affect several biological markers, especially male fertility. Besides, the protective activity of the wild mustard (Sinapis arvensis) pollen in the face of cellular oxidative damage induced by EGME. So, it is suggested that this pollen could be used as a cell protector.


environmental pollution, ethylene glycol monoethyl ether, hematotoxicity, pollen, reprotoxicity, wild mustard


Aasmoe L, Winberg JO, Aarbakke J (1998) The Role of Liver Alcohol Dehydrogenase Isoenzymes in the Oxidation of Glycolethers in Male and Female Rats. Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology 150:86-90.

Abdljalil A (2014) Quelques aspects germinatifs, rhizogénique et écologiques chez Sinapis arvensis.L dans la région de Tlemcen. Thèse présentée en vue de l'obtention de diplôme de master 2 en département d'écologie et environnement, université de Tlemcen.

Adedara IA, Farombi EO (2010) Induction of oxidative damage in the testes and spermatozoa and hematotoxicity in rats exposed to multiple doses of ethylene glycol monoethyl ether. Human & Experimental Toxicology 29:801-812.

Adeyemo-Salami OA, Farombi EO (2018) Sub-Acute Toxicity Study of Ethylene Glycol Monomethyl Ether on the Antioxidant Defense System of the Testes and Epididymes of Wistar Rats. Niger J Physiol Sci 33:195-200.

Agarwal A, Virk G, Ong C, du Plessis SS (2014) Effect of Oxidative Stress on Male Reproduction. The World Journal of Men's Health 32:1.

Aitken RJ, Clarkson JS (1987) Cellular basis of defective spermatozoa function and its association with the genesis of reactive of reactive oxygen species by human spermatozoaatozoa. J Reprod and Fertl 81:459-469.

AlfiahHayati, Amilia Mahmuda IB, Rai Pidada (2010) 2-Methoxyethanol exposure affects protein profile of testicular sperm membrane in mice (musmusculus). Folia MedicaIndonesiana 46:253-256.

Almaraz-Abarca N, Campos MG, A´ vila-Reyes JA, NaranjoJime´nez N, Herrera-Corral J, Gonza´lez-Valdez LS (2004) Variability of antioxidant activity among honeybee-collected pollen of different botanical origin. Interciencia 29:574-578.

American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists (ACGIH) (2007) Threshold Limit Values for Chemicals Substances and Physical Agents. Cincinnati OIH.

Aschbacher K1, O'Donovan A, Wolkowitz OM, Dhabhar FS, Su Y, Epel E (2013) Good stress, bad stress and oxidative stress : insights from anticipatory cortisol reactivity. Psychoneuroendocrinology 38:1698-708.

Auger JM, Kunstmann F Czyglik, P Jouannet (1995) Decline in semen quality among fertile men in Paris during the past 20 years. New England Journal of Medicine 332:281–285.

Bagchi G, Waxman DJ (2008) Toxicity of ethylene glycol monomethyl ether: impact on testicular gene expression. International Journal of Andrology 31:269–274. 

Barbee SJ, Terrill JB, DeSousa DJ, Conaway CC (1984) Subchronic inhalation toxicology of ethylene glycol monoethyl ether in the rat and rabbit. Environ Health Perspect 57:157-163.

Bartnik FG, Reddy AK, Klecak G, Zimmermann V, Hostynek JJ, Kunstler K (1987) Percutaneous absorption, metabolism, and hemolytic activity of n-butoxyethanol. Fundam Appl Toxicol 8:59-70.

Bendimerad SD, Taleb Bendiab AK, Benabadji N, Fernandez X, Vallette L, Lizzani-Cuvellier, Benabadji N (2005) Composition and Antibacterial Activity of Pseudocytisusintegrifolius (Salisb) essentiel, Oil from Algeria. Jour Agric Food Chem 53:2947-2952

Bendjeddou M, Khelili K (2014) The toxic effects of the ethylene glycol monomethyl ether (EGME) in male rabbit. Annals of Biological Research 5:8-15

Berndtson WE, Foote RH (1997) Disruption of spermatogenesis in rabbits consuming ethylene glycol monomethyl ether. Reprod Toxicol 11:29-36.

Boatman RJ, Knaak JB (2001) Ethers of Ethylene Glycol and Derivatives. In: Bingham E, Cohressen B, Powell CH (eds) Patty's toxicology, 5th edn. Wiley, New York, pp 73-270.

Boelsterli UA (2007) Mechanistic toxicology: The molecular basis of how chemicals disrupt biological targets. CRC Press, pp 117.

Bonvehí SJ, Torrentó SM, Lorente CE (2001) Evaluation of Polyphenolic and Flavonoid Compounds in Honeybee-Collected Pollen Produced in Spain. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry 49:4.

Browning E (1965) Toxicity and metabolism of organic solvents. Elsevier, Amsterdam, Netherlands, pp 632- 634.

Brun J, Khaled S, Raynaud E, Bouix D, Micallef J, Orsetti A (1998) The triphasic effects of exercise on blood rheology: Which relevance to physiology and pathophysiology. Clinical Hemorheology and Microcirculation 19:89-104.

Bucfhanan G (1973) Crop loss assessment methods. F.A.O .Manuel fiche n° 97.

Butterworth M, Creasy D, Timbrell JA (1995) The detection of subchronic testicular damage using urinary creatine: studies with 2-methoxyethanol. Arch Toxicol 69:209-211.

Campos MG, Webby RF, Markham KR, Mitchell KA, Da Cunha AP (2003) Age-induced diminution of free radical scavenging capacity in bee pollens and the contribution of constituent flavonoids. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry 51:742-745.

Campos MG, Markham K,Cunha A (1997) Bee-pollen: composition, properties and applications. In Mizrahi, A (Ed) Bee Products. Plenum Publishing Company; London, UK pp 93-100.

Carpenter CP, Smyth HF Jr (1946) Chemical burns of the rabbit cornea. Am J Ophthalmol 29:1363-1372.

Chu QC, Tian XH, Jiang  LM, Ye  JN (2007) Application of capillary electrophoresis to study phenolic profiles of honeybee-collected pollen. J Agric Food Chem 55:8864-8869.

Cragg GM, Newman DJ (2001) Pharmaceutical Biology pp 8-17.

De Ketttenis P (2005) The historic and current use of glycol ethers: a picture of change. Toxicology Letters 156:5-11.

De Rooji (1998) Stem cells in the testis. Int J Exp Path 79:67-80.

Demur C, Métais B, Canlet C, Tremblay-Franco M, Gautier R, Blas-Y-Estrada F, Sommer C, Gamet-Payrastre L (2013) Dietary exposure to a low dose of pesticides alone or as a mixture: The biological metabolic fingerprint and impact on hematopoiesis. Toxicology 308:74-87.

Denkhaus W, Steldern D, Botzenhardt U and Konietzko H (1986) Lymphocyte subpopulations in solvent-exposed workers, Int Arch Occup Environ Health 57:109-115.

Derosa G, Cicero AF, Murdolo G, Ciccarelli L, Fogari R (2004) Comparison of metabolic effects of orlistat and sibutramine treatment in Type 2 diabetic obese patients, Diabetes  Nutr Metab 17:222-229.

Devillers J, Chessel D (1995) Can the enucleated rabbit eye test be a suitable alternative for the in vivo eye test? A chemometrical response. Toxicol Model 1:21-34.

DMER (Don Mackay Environmental Research) (1996) Pathways analysis using fugacity modelling of 2-methoxyethanol for the second Priority Substances List. Rapport préparé pour la Division de l’évaluation des produits chimiques, Direction de l’évaluation des produits chimiques commerciaux, Environnement Canada, par DMER, Peterborough (Ont.), et AEL, Don Mills (Ont.).

Donley DE (1936) Toxic encephalopathy and volatil solvents in industry: report of case. J Ind Hyg Toxicol 18:571-577.

Dufresne C (2000) Encyclopédie de sécurité et de santé au travail, Organisation internationale du travail. pp 11-18.

European Centre for Ecotoxicology and Toxicology of Chemicals (ECETOC) (2005) The Toxicology of Glycol Ethers and its Relevance to Man. Brussels, Belgium, Fourth Edition. Volume II - Substance Profiles. Pp 496.

European Centre for Ecotoxicology and Toxicology of Chemicals (ECETOC) (1995) The toxicology of glycol ethers and its relevance to man, Bruxelles (Belgique), pp 350.

European Center for Ecotoxicology and Toxicology of Chemicals (ECETOC WORKING GROUP) (1995) Technical Report. The toxicology of glycol ethers and its relevance to man. Eur Center Ecotoxicol Toxicol Chemicals 64:1-348.

European Center for Ecotoxicology and Toxicology of Chemicals (ECETOC) (1994). The toxicology of glycol ethers and its relevance to man. Technical report No 64.

Etiemble J (2003) Les éthers de glycol :Une toxicité variable selon les composés. Chimie et santé publique, pp 145-149.

Exon JH, Mather GG, Bussiere JL, Olson DP,  Talcott PA (1991) Effects of subchronic exposure of rats to 2-methoxyethanol or 2- butoxyethanol: thymic atrophy and immunotoxicity. Fundam Appl Toxicol 16:830-840.

Foote RH, Farrel PB, Schlafer DH, McArdle MM, Trouern-Trend V, Simkin ME, Brockett CC, Giles JR, Li J (1995) Ethylene glycol monomethyl ether effects on health and reproduction in male rabbits. Reprod Toxicol 9:527-539.

Foster PMD, Creasy DM, Foster JR, Thomas LV, Cook MW, Gangolli SD (1983) Testicular toxicity of ethylene glycol monomethyl and monoethyl ethers in the rat. Toxicol Appl Pharmacol 69:385-399.

Fujii J, Iuchi Y, Matsuki S, Ishii T (2003) Cooperative function of antioxidant and redox systems against oxidative stress in male reproductive tissue. Asian Journal of Andrology 5(3):231-42.

Gargi Bagchi, David J Waxman (2008) Toxicity of ethylene glycol monomethyl ether: impact on testicular gene expression. International Journal of Andrology 31:269-274.

Gomez-Campo C (1999) Biologyof Brassicacoeno species Elsevier Amsterdam.

Greenburg L, Mayers MR, Goldwater LJ, Burke WJ, Moskowitz S (1938) Health hazards in the manufacture of "fused collars." I. Exposure to ethylene glycol monomethyl ether. J Ind Hyg Toxicol 20:134-147.

Groeseneken D, Veulemans H, Masschelein R, Van Vlem E (1989) Experimental human exposure to ethylene glycol monomethyl ether. Int Arch Occup Environ Health 61:243-247.

Hall JC, Sytsma KJ, Iltis HH (2002) Phylogeny of Capparaceae and Brassicaceae based on chloroplast sequence data. Ann J Bot 89:1826-1842.

Hardin BD, Goad PT, Burg JR (1984) Developmental toxicity of four glycol ethers applied cutaneously to rats. Environ Health Perspect 57:69-74.

Hargreaves CA, Rogers S, Hills F, Rahman F, Howell RJ, Homa ST (1998) Effects of co-trimoxazole, erythromycin, amoxycillin, tetracycline and chloroquine on sperm function in vitro. Hum Reprod 13:1878-1886.

Hashish EA, Elgaml SA (2016) Role of nicotinic acid in mitigating methomyl induced acute toxicity in albino rats. J Clin Exp Pathol 6:268.

Holloway AJ, Moore HD and Foster PM (1990) The use of rat in vitro fertilization to detect reductions in the fertility of spermatozoa from males exposed to ethylene glycol monomethyl ether. Reprod Toxicol 4:21-27.

Hong HL, Canipe J, Jameson CW, Boorman GA (1988) Comparative effects of ethylene glycol and ethylene glycol monomethyl ether exposure on hematopoiesis and histopathology in B6C3F1 mice. J Environ PatholToxicol Oncol 8:27-38.

Howard JA, Joly HA and Mile B (1990) Reaction of ground-state aluminium atoms with diethyl ether. Electron spin resonance evidence for insertion into the CH and CC bonds. Journal of the Chemical Society, Faraday Transactions 86:219-220

Howard PH (1990) Handbook of environmental fate and exposure data for organic chemicals, vol. II, Solvents, Lewis Publishers Inc., Chelsea (Mich.).

Institut national de recherche et de sécurité (INRS) (2014) 2-Méthoxyéthanol. Fiche toxicologique n° 103.

Institut National de Recherche et de Sécurité(INRS) (2010) 2-Méthoxyéthanol (EGME). Fiche DEMETER (Documents pour l’évaluation médicale des produits toxiques vis-à-vis de la reproduction). N° DEM 008, FT INRS n° 103.

Institut national de recherche et de sécurité (INRS) (2004) Les éthers de glycol. Fic. Sol. Ed., 4222 pp 1-6.

Institut national de recherche et de sécurité (INRS) (1999) Fiche toxicologique. 103 : 2-Méthoxyéthanol.

Institut National de la Santé et de la Recherche Médicale(INSERM) (1999) Ethers de glycol: quels risques pour la santé. Paris, France: Éditions Inserm.

International Programme on Chemical Safety (IPCS) (1990) Environmental Health Criteria 115. 2–Methoxyethanol, 2–ethoxyethanol, and their acetates, International Programme on Chemical Safety, World Health Organization, Geneva.

Iyyanki V, Muralikrishna, Valli Manickam (2017) Environmental management science and engineering for industry all book details. Butterworth-Heinemann; 1a edn, pp 664.

Jacobs G, Martens M, Mosselmans G (1987) Proposal of limit concentrations for skin irritation within the context of a new EEC directive on the classification and labelling of preparations. Regul Toxicol Pharmacol 7:370-378.

Jacobs GA, Castellazzi A, Dierickx PJ. (1989). Evaluation of a non-invasive human and an in vitro cytotoxicity method as alternatives to the skin irritation test on rabbits. Contact Dermatitis 21:239-244.

Johanson G (2000) Toxicity review of ethylene glycol monomethyl ether and its acetate ester. Crit Rev Toxicol 30:307–345.

Johanson G (1996) An overview of glycol ethers metabolism and toxicokinetics. Occup Hyg 2:5-24

Jovanovic SV and Simic MG (2000) Antioxidants in nutrition. Ann NY Acad Sci 899:326-334.

Kawamoto T, Matsuno K, Kayama F, Arashidani K, Yoshikawa M, Kodama Y (1992) The effect of ethylene glycol monomethyl ether and diethylene glycol monomethyl ether on hepatic gamma-glutamyltranspeptidase. Toxicology 76:49-57.

Ku WW, Wine RN, Chae BY, Ghanayem BI, Chapin RE (1995) Spermatocyte toxicity of 2-methoxyethanol (ME) in rats and guinea pigs: evidence for the induction of apoptosis. Toxicol Appl Pharmacol 134:100-110.

Lalruatfela PL, Saminathan M, Ingole RS, Dhama K, Joshi MV (2014) Toxicopathology of paraquat herbicide in female wistar rats. Asian Journal of Animal and Veterinary Advances 9:523-542.

Lamb JC, Gulati DK, Russell VS (1984) Reproductive toxicity of ethylene glycol monoethyl ether tested by continuous breeding of CD-1 mice. Environ Health Perspect 57:85-90.

Lambinon J, Delvosalle L,  Duvigneaud J (2004) Nouvelle flore de la Belgique, du Grand-Duché de Luxembourg, du Nord de la France et des Régions voisines. Jardin Botanique National de Belgique. Meise.

Laouar A (2018) Exploration de l’impact des extraits naturels d’origine végétale « Juniperus phoenicea » sur la toxicité induite par le tétrachlorure de carbone chez le rat. Thèse présentée en vue de l’obtention du diplôme de doctorat en biochimie, Université Badji-Mokhtar-Annaba.

Lazewska M, Tabarowski Z, and Dabrowski  Z (1993) Effect of small doses of ethylene glycol monomethyl ether on the acetylcholinesterase and delta-aminolevulinic acid dehydratase activity in erythrocytes, blood and bone marrow of rats, Toxicol Ind Health 9:617-622.

LeBlanc BW, Davis OK, Boue  S, De Lucca  A,  Deeby T (2009). Antioxidant activity of Sonoran Desert bee pollen. Food Chemistry 115:1299-1305.

Linskens HF, Jorde W (1997) Pollen as food and medicine-A review. Economic Botany 51:78-87.

Lockley DJ, Howes D, Williams FM (2002) Percutaneous penetration and metabolism of 2-ethoxyethanol. Toxicol Appl Pharmacol 180:74-82.

Lodovici M and Bigagli E (2011) Oxidative Stress and Air Pollution Exposure. Journal of Toxicology 12:1-9.

Mărghitaş LA, Stanciu OG, Dezmirean DS, Bobis O, Popescu O, Bogdanov S (2009) In vitro antioxidant capacity of honeybee-collected pollen of selected floral origin harvested from Romania. Food Chem 115:878-883.

Mebus CA, Welsch F (1989) The possible role of one-carbon moieties in 2-methoxyethanol and 2-methoxyacetic acid-induced developmental toxicity. Toxicol Appl Pharmacol 99:98-109.

Meddour A, Yahia M, Benkiki N, Ayachi A (2013) Etude de l'activité Antioxydante et antibactérienne des extraits d'un ensemble des parties de la fleur du Capparis spinosa L. Lebanese Science Journal 14:49-60.

Miguel BR, Alicia C, Eduardo (2006) Effect of two insecticide and two herbicides on the porcine sperm motility patterns using computer-assisted semen analysis (CASA) in vitro. Reproductive Toxicology 22:508-512.

Miki K (2007) Energy metabolism and sperm function. Society of Reproduction and Fertility supplement 65:309-325.

Miki K, Qu W, Goulding EH, Willis WD, Bunch DO, Strader LF, Perreault SD, Eddy, EM, O'Brien DA. (2004) Glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate dehydrogenase-S, a sperm-specific glycolytic enzyme, is required for sperm motility and male fertility. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 101:16501-16506.

Miller RR, Ayres JA, Calhoun LL, Young JT, McKenna MJ (1981) Comparative short-term inhalation toxicity of ethylene glycol monomethyl ether and propylene glycol monomethyl ether in rats and mice. Toxicol Appl Pharmacol 61:368-377.

Miller RR (1983) Ethylene glycol monomethyl ether. I. Subchronicvapor inhalation study with rats and rabbits. Fundamental and Applied Toxicology 3:49-54.

Mori K, Kaido M, Fujishiro K, Inoue N (1989) Testicular toxicity and alterations of glutathione metabolism resulting from chronic inhalation of ethylene oxide in rats, Toxicol Appl Pharmacol 101:299-309.

Nagano K, Nakayama E, Koyano M, Oobayashi H, Adachi H, Yamada T (1979) Testicular atrophy of mice induced by ethylene glycol mono alkyl ethers. Jpn J Ind Health 21:29-35.

Nakajima Y, Tsuruma K, Shimazawa M, Mishima S,  Hara H (2009)Comparison of bee products based on assays of antioxidant capacities. BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine 9:1.

Nitter-Hauge S (1970) Poisoning with ethylene glycol monomethyl ether. Report of two cases. Acta Med Scand 188:277-280.

Organisation Mondiale de la Santé (OMS) (2004) Critères de qualité d’air (air quality guidelines) et critères de qualité de l’eau potable (water sanitation).

Organisation mondiale de la santé (OMS) (1990) 2-methoxyethanol, 2-ethoxyethanol, and their acetates, Programme international sur la sécurité des substances chimiques, Genève (Suisse), pp 126.

Parsons CE and Parsons MEM (1938) Toxic encephalopathy and 'granulopenicanemia' due to volatile solvents in industry: report of two cases. Journal of Industrial Hygiene and Toxicology,  pp 120-124.

Pastre JOC (2005) Intérêt de la supplementation en antioxydants dans l'alimentation des carnivores domestiques. Ecole Nationale Vétérinaire. Toulouse 3:4116.

Phillips KP and N Tanphaichitr (2008) Human exposure to endocrine disrupters and semen quality. Journal of Toxicology and Environmental Health 11:188-220.

Podsędek A (2007) Natural antioxidants and antioxidant capacity of brassica vegetables: A review.  Food Science and Technology 40:1-11.

Pomierny B, Starek A, Krzyzanowska W, Starek-Swiechowicz B, Smaga I, Pomierny-Chamiolo L, Regulska M, Budziszewska B (2014) Potential neurotoxic effect of ethylene glycol ethers mixtures. Pharmacol Rep 65:1415-1421.

Prabhat K (2016) Biomagnetic Monitoring of Particulate Matter. 1st Edition, Elsevier Science, pp216

Ranaivo HR , Rakotoarison O, Tesse A, Schott C, Randriantsoa A, Lobstein A ,  Andrian tsitohaina R (2004) Cedrelopsisgrevei induced hypotension and improved endothelial vasodilatation through an increase of Cu/Zn SOD protein expression. Am J Physiol Heart Cric Physiol 286:775-781.

Rao VS and Shaha C (2002) N-acetylcysteine prevents MAA induced male germ cell apoptosis: role of glutathione and cytochrome c. FEBS. Toxicology Letters 527:133-137.

Ratcliffe JM et al 1989 Semen quality in workers exposed to 2-ethoxyethanol. British Journal of Industrial Medicine 46:399-406.

Reader SC, Shingles C, Stonard MD (1991) Acute testicular toxicity of 1,3-dinitrobenzene and ethylene glycol monomethyl ether in the rat: evaluation of biochemical Adedara I A and Farombi E O 811 Downloaded from at NATIONAL CHUNG HSING UNIV on March 31, 2014 effect markers and hormonal responses. Fundam Appl Toxicol 16:61-70.

Riddle M, Williams W, Andrews D, Copeland C, Luebke R, Smialowicz R (1992) Species and strain comparisons of immunosuppression by 2-methoxyethanol (ME) and 2- methoxyacetic acid (MAA) Toxicologist 12:177.

Rooji DG (1998) Stem cells in the testis. Int J Exp Path 79: 67-80.

Sakurai K et al. 2015 MicroRNA profiling in ethylene glycol monomethyl ether-induced monkey testicular toxicity model. Journal of Toxicological Sciences 40:375-382.

Sax NI and Lewis RJ Sr (1989) Dangerous properties of industrial materials, 7th edition. Van Nostrand Reinhold, New York.

Scott WJ, Fradkin R, Wittfoht W, Nau H (1989) Teratologic potential of 2-methoxyethanol and transplacental distribution of its metabolite, 2-methoxyacetic acid, in non-human primates.Teratology 39:363-373.

Shih TS, Hsieh AT, Liao GD, Chen YH, Liou SH (2000) Haematological and spermatotoxic effects of ethylene glycol monomethyl ether in copper clad laminate factories. Occup Environ Med 57:348-352.

Siriwardena AK (2014) Reappraisal of xenobiotic- induced, oxidative stress-mediated cellular injury in chronic pancreatitis: A systematic review. World J Gastroenterol 20:3033-3043.

Sleet RB, Greene JA, Welsch F (1988) The relationship of embryotoxicity to disposition of 2-méthoxyéthanol in mice. Toxicol Appl Pharmacol 93:195-207.

Smialowicz RJ, Riddle MM, Luebke RW, Copeland CB, Andrews D, Rogers RR, Gray, LE, Laskey JW (1991) Immunotoxicity of 2-methoxyethanol following oral administration in Fischer 344 rats.Toxicol Appl Pharmacol 109:494-506.

Starek A, Szymczak W, Zapor L (2008) Hematological effects of four ethylene glycol monoalkyl ethers in short-term repeated exposure in rats. Arch Toxicol 82:125-136.

Stemmler K, Mengon W, Kinnison DJ , Kerr JA (1997) OH radical-initiated oxidation of 2- butoxyethanol under laboratory conditions related to the troposphere: product studies and proposed mechanism. Environ Sci Technol 31:1496-1504.

Stanard B (2014) 2-Ethoxyethanol. Encyclopedia of Toxicology pp 503-505.

Stevens PF (2001) Angiosperm Phylogeny Website. Version 9.

Suter L, Meier G, Bechter R, Bobadilla M (1998) Flow cytometry as a sensitive tool to assess testicular damage in rat. Archives of Toxicology 72:791-797.

Takagi A, Yamada T, Hayashi K, Nakade Y, Kojima T, Takamatsu J, Murate T (2002) Involvement Of Caspase 3 Mediated Apoptosis In Hematopoietic Cytotoxicity Of Metabolites Of Ethylene Glycol Monomethyl Ether. Industrial Health 40:371-374.

Tas S, Lauwerys R, Lison D (1996) Occupational hazards for the male reproductive system. Crit Rev Toxicol 26:261-307.

Timour Q, Biggi-Bernard U, Descotes J (2007) Hormonothérapie de substitution: toxicité des éthers de glycol. Journal de Gynécologie Obstétrique et Biologie de La Reproduction 36:62-67.

Tiwari A (1999) Natural product antioxidants and their therapeutic potential in mitigating peroxidative modification of lipoproteins and atherosclerosis: recent development. J Med Aroma Plant Sci 21:730-741.

Toyokuni S, Tanaka T, Kawaguchi W, Fang NR, Ozeki M, Akatsuka S, Hiai H, Aruoma OI, Bahorun T (2003) Effects of the phenolic contents of Mauritian endemic plant extract on promoter activities of antioxidant enzymes. Free Rad Res 37:1215-1224.

Udden MM (2000) Rat erythrocyte morphological changes after gavage dosing with 2-butoxyethanol: a comparison with thein vitro effects of butoxyacetic acid on rat and human erythrocytes. Journal of Applied Toxicology 20:381-387.

United States Environmental Protection Agency (US EPA) (1986) Health and environmental effects profile for 2-methoxyethanol, Environmental Criteria and Assessment Office, Cincinnati (Ohio) (EPA/600/x-87/025; NTIS PB89-119531).

US Environmental Protection Agency (US EPA) (1986) Brominated diphenylethers. Chemical hazard information profile. Washington, DC, US Environ. Protection Agency.

Verschuere S, De Smet R, Allais L, Cuvelier CA (2012) The effect of smoking on intestinal inflammation: What can be learned from animal models. J Crohns Colitis 6:1-12.

Veulemans H et al (1993) Exposure to ethylene glycol ethers and spermatogenic disorders in man: a case-control study. British Journal of Industrial Medicine 50:71-78.

Wang RS, Suda M, Gao X, Wang B, Nakajima T, Honma T (2004) Health effects of exposure to ethylene glycol monoethyl ether in female workers. Ind Health 42:447-451.

Watanable A, NakanoY, Endo T, Sato N, Kai K, Shiraiwa K (2000) Collaborative work to evaluate toxicity on male reproductive organs by repeated dose studies in rats. Repeated toxicity study on ethylene glycol monomethyl ether for 2 and 4 weeks to detect effects on male reproductive organs in rats. J Toxicol Sci, pp 259-266.

Welch LS (1988) Effects of exposure to ethylene glycol ethers on shipyard painters: II. Male reproduction. American Journal of Industrial Medicine 14:509-526.

Welsch F (2005) Mechanism of ethylene glycol ether reproductive and developmental toxicity and evidence for adverse effects in humans. Toxicology Letters 156:13-28.

Welsch F, Sleet RB (1987) Metabolism and disposition of a teratogenic dose of 2-méthoxyéthanol (ME) in pregnant CD-1 mice. Teratology 36:16-22.

Wikström N, Savolainen V, Chase M (2001) Evolution of the angiosperms: Calibrating the family tree. Proc Roy Soc London B 268: 2211-2220.

Williams WC, Riddle MM, Copeland CB, Andrews DL, Smialowicz RJ (1995) Immunological effects of 2-methoxyethanol administered dermally or orally to Fischer 344 rats. Toxicology 98:215-223.

Yamamoto T, Horii I and Yoshida T (2007) Integrated nmr-based metabonomic investigation of early metabolic effects of ethylene glycol monomethyl ether (egme) on male reproductive organs in rats. The Journal of Toxicological Sciences 32:515-528.

Young EG, Woolner LB (1946) A case of fatal poisoning from 2-methoxy-ethanol. J Ind Hyg Toxicol 28:267-268.

Zastrow G, Gunther S, Postel W, Gorg A, Diehl H A and Jansen EH (1990) Serum proteins of rats exposed to organic solvents examined by horizontal two-dimensional electrophoresis with an immobilized pH gradient in the first dimension. Electrophoresis 11:655-657.

Zissu D (1995) Experimental study of cutaneous tolerance to glycol ethers. Contact Dermatitis 32:74-77.

Submitted date:

Reviewed date:

Accepted date:

605e41fca9539545042732f3 jabbnet Articles
Links & Downloads

J. Anim. Behav. Biometeorol.

Share this page
Page Sections