Journal of Animal Behaviour and Biometeorology
Journal of Animal Behaviour and Biometeorology
Research Article Open Access

Temperature effect on the maximum swimming speed of jack mackerel Trachurus japonicus through muscle contraction monitoring

Nofrizal, Farhan Ramdhani, Takafumi Arimoto

Downloads: 0
Views: 1024


The purpose of this study is to know the effect of temperature on fish muscle contraction of jack mackerel (Trachurus japonicus), which muscle contraction will determine the tail beat frequency and maximum swimming speed. The maximum swimming speed of was evaluated according to the measurement of the muscle contraction time with electric stimuli of 2-7 V, 50 ms. Fish were separated into four groups for temperature acclimation at 10, 15, 18 and 22 ºC to reflect typical changes in seasonal water temperature in Japan. Results showed that the swimming speed of the fish was positively related to the tail-beat frequency at all temperatures. The muscle contraction time was also affected by the acclimated temperature, which longer at the lower temperature than higher ones. Mean contraction time (Tm) was 45.1 ms at 10 ºC, 32.7 ms at 15 ºC, 32.9 ms at 18 ºC, and 31.9 ms at 22 ºC, respectively. The mean of maximum tail-beat frequency (Fmax) obtained from Fmax = ½ Tm was 11.4 Hz at 10 ºC, 15.8 Hz at 15 ºC, 16,4 Hz at 18 ºC, and 16.6 Hz at 22 ºC. These were used to estimate the maximum swimming speed (Umax) at each temperature, resulting in 9.45 FL s-1 at 10 ºC, 13.5 FL s-1 at 15 ºC, 14.0 FL s-1 18 ºC, and 14.2 FL s-1 at 22 ºC.  The seasonal temperature effects on the swimming performance of T. japonicus, which lower water temperature in the winter made low swimming performance.


muscle contraction time, tail beat frequency, Trachurus japonicus


Beamish FWH (1978) Swimming capacity. In: Hoar WS, Randal DJ (eds) Fish physiology, Vol 7. London, Academic Press.

Block BA, Booth D, Carey FG (1992) Direct measurement of swimming speed and depth of blue marlin. Journal of Experimental Biologi 116:267-284.

Brill RW, Dizon AE (1979) Effect on temperature on isotonic twitch of white muscle and predicted maximum swimming speeds of skipjack tuna, Katsuwonus pelamis. Environmental Biology of Fishes 4:199-205.

Chopin SF, Arimoto T (1995) The condition of fish escaping from fishing gear-a review. Fisheries Research 21:315–327.

Claireaux G, Webber DM, Lagardere JP, Kerr SR (2000) Influence of water temperature and oxygenation on theaerobic metabolic scope of Atlanric cod (Gadus morhua). Journal of Sea Research 44:257-265.

Claireaux G, Couturier C, Groison AL (2006) Effect of temperature on maximum swimming speed and cost of transport I juvenile European sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax). The Journal of Experimental Biology 209:3420-3428.

Day N, Butler PJ (2005) The effects of acclimation to reversed seasonal temperatures on the swimming performance of adult brown trout Salmon trutta. The Journal of Experimental Biology 208:2683-2692.

Dickson AK, Donley MJ, Sepulveda C, Bhoopat L (2002) Effects of temperature on sustained swimming performance and swimming kinematic of the chub mackerel Scomber japonicas. The Journal of Experimental Biology 205:969-980.

Domenici P (2001) The scaling of locomotors performance in predator-prey encounters: fromfish to killer whales. Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology 131:169-182.

Fangue NA, Mandic M, Richards JG, Schulte PM (2008) Swimming performance and energetics as a function of temperature in killifish Fundulus heteroclitus. Physiological and Biochemical Zoology 81:389-401.

Hammer C (1995) Fatigue and exercise tests with fish. Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology 112:1-20.

Herskin J, Steffensen JF (1998) Energy saving in sea bass swimming in school: measurements of tail beat frequency and oxygen consumption at different swimming speed. Journal of Fish Biology 53:366-376.

Hunter JR (1971). Swimming speed, tail beat frequency, tail beat amplitude and size in jack mackerel, Trachurus symmetricus, and other fishes. Fisheries Bulletin 69:253-266.

Inoue Y, Matsushita Y, Arimoto T (1993) The reaction behavior of walley pollock (Theragra chalcogramma) in a deep/low-temperature trawl fishing ground. ICES Marine Science Symposium 196:77-79.

Johnston IA, Temple GK (2002) Thermal plasticity of skeletal muscle phenotype in ectothermic vertebrates and its significance for locomotory behaviour. The Journal of Experimetal Biology 205:2305-2322.

Jones PL, Sidell BD (1982) Metabolic response of striped to temperature acclimation. II. Alterations in metabolic carbon sources and distribution of fiber types in locomotory muscle. Journal of Experimental Zoology 219:163-171.

Keen JE, Farrell AP (1994) Maximum prolonged swimming speed and maximum cardiac performance of rainbow trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss, acclimated to two different water temperatures. Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology 108:287-295.

Lane FW (1941) How fast do fish swim? Country Life (London) 90:534-535.

Lee SG, Farrell AP, Lotto A, MacNutt MJ, Hinch SG, Healey MC (2003) The effect of temperature on swimming performance and oxygen consumption in adult sockeye (Oncorhynchus nerka) and coho (O. kisutch) salmon stock. The Journal of Experimental Biology 206:3239-3251.

MacNutt MJ, Hinch SG, Farrel AP, Topp S (2004) The effect of temperature and acclimation period on repeat swimming performance in cutthroat. Journal of Fish Biology 65:342-353.

Myrick CA, Cech JJ (2000) Swimming performance of four California stream fishes: temperature effects. Environmental Biology of Fishes 58:289-295.

Nofrizal, Yanase K, Arimoto T (2009) Effect of temperature on the swimming endurance and post-exercise recovery of jack mackerel Trachurus japonicus, as determined by ECG monitoring. Fisheries Science 75:1369-1375.

Nofrizal (2009) Behavioural physiology on swimming performance of jack mackerel Trachurus japonicus in capture process. PhD dissertation, Tokyo University of Marine Science and Technology, Tokyo.

Nofrizal, Ahmad, M., 2015. Swimming performance of Asian redtail catfish (Hemibagrus nemurus) in the swimming channel of flume tank. Journal of Sustainability Science and Management 1:107-113.

Nofrizal, Arimoto T (2011) ECG monitoring on swimming endurance and heart rate of jack mackerel Trachurus japonicus during repeated exercise. Journal of Asian Fisheries Society 24:78-87.

Ojanguren AF, Brana F (2000) Thermal dependence of swimming endurance in juvenile brown trout. Journal of Fish Biology 56:1342-1347.

Parrish JK (1999) Using behavior and ecology to exploit schooling fishes. Environmental Biology of Fishes 55:157-181.

Penghan LY, Cao ZD, Fu SJ (2014) Effect of temperature and dissolved oxygen on swimming performance in crucian carp. Aquatic Biology 21:57-65.

Randall DJ, Brauner CJ (1991) Effects of environmental factors on exercise in fish. Journal of Experimental Biology 160:113-126.

Rome LC (1990) Influence of temperature on muscle recruitment and muscle function in vivo. American Journal of Physiology 28:R210-R222.

Rome LC, Sosnicki AA, Choi I (1992) The influence of temperature on muscle function in the fast swimming scup. I. Shortening velocity and muscle recruitment during swimming. Journal of Experimental Biology 163:259-279.

Rome LC, Funke RP, Alexander RM (1990) The influence of temperature on muscle velocityand sustained performance in swimming carp. Journal of Experimental Biology 200:1745-1755.

Riyanto M, Yanase K, Arimoto T (2014). Temperature and fatigue effect on the maximum swimming speed of jack mackerel Trachurus japonicus. Fisheries Science 80: 53-59.

Riyanto M, Arimoto T (2014) The temperature effect on heart rate of jack mackerel Trachurus japonicus during swimming exercise. Fisheries Science 80:1241-1248.

Shadwick RE, Schiller LL, Fudge SD (2013) Physiology of swimming and migration in tunas. In: Palstra AP, Planas JV (Eds) Swimming physiology of fish: Towards using exercise to farm a fit fish in sustainable aquaculture. Springer Science & Business Media.

Sidell BD (1980) Response of goldfish (Carassius auratus L.) muscle to acclimation temperature: Alterations in biochemistry and proportions of different fiber types. Physiological and Biochemical Zoology 53:98-107.

Svendsen MBS, Domenici P, Marras S, Krause J, Boswell KM, Rodriguez-Pinto I, Wilson ADM, Kurvers RHJM, Viblanc PE, Finger JS, Steffensen JF (2016) Maximum swimming speed of sailfish and three other large marine predatory fish species based on muscle contraction time and stride length: a myth revisited. The Company of Biologist 5:1415-1419.

Swank DM, Rome LC (2001) The influence of thermal acclimation on power production during swimming. II. Mechanics of scup red muscle under in vivo conditions. Journal of Experimental Biology 204:419-430.

Taylor S, Egginton S, Taylor E (1996) Seasonal temperature acclimatisation of rainbow trout: cardiovascular and morphometric influences on maximal sustainable exercise level. Journal of Experimental Biology 199:835-845.

Wardle CS (1993) Fish behavior and fishing gear. In: Pitcher TJ (Ed) The behavior of teleost fishes (2nd ed.). Chapman and Hall, London, 609-643 pp.

Wardle CS (1975) Limit of fish swimming speed. Nature 255:725-727.

Wilson AM, Lowe JC, Roskilly K, Hudson PE, Golabek KA, McNutt JW (2013) Locomotion dynamics of hunting in wild cheetahs. Nature 498:185-189.

Yan GJ, He XK, Cao ZD, Fu SJ (2012) The trade-off between steady and unsteady swimming performance in six cyprinids at two temperatures. Journal of Thermal Biology 37:424-431.

Yanase K, Eayrs S, Arimoto T (2007) Influence of water temperature and fish length on the maximum swimming speed of sand flathead, Platychephalus bassensis: implication for trawl selectivity. Fisheries research 84:180-188.

Webb PW (1984) Body form, locomotion and foraging in aquatic vertebrates. American Zoologist 24:107-120.

Woodhead PMJ (1964) Changes in the behavior of the sole Solea vulgaris, during cold winters, and the relationship between the winter catch and sea temperature. Helgoland Marine Research 10:328-342.

Zeng W, Cao ZD, Fu SJ, Peng JL, Wang YX (2009) Effect of temperature on swimming performance in juvenile southern catfish (Silurus meridionalis). Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology 153:125-130.

Submitted date:

Accepted date:

5f8d82380e88254975cb468b jabbnet Articles
Links & Downloads

J. Anim. Behav. Biometeorol.

Share this page
Page Sections