Journal of Animal Behaviour and Biometeorology
Journal of Animal Behaviour and Biometeorology
Research Article Open Access

Effect of cashew nut shell liquid at varying inclusion levels on rumen fermentation and methane production in vitro

Adeola Patience Adetunji, Ronke Yemisi Aderinboye, Kafayat Omowunmi Adebayo, Victoria Olubunmi Ojo, Peter Ayodeji Idowu, Bohani Mtileni

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Essential oils are possible natural antibiotic alternatives for manipulating ruminal fermentation in order to improve the utilization of nutrient in ruminants. This study evaluated the effect of cashew nut shell liquid (CNSL) at varying inclusion levels on in vitro gas production, nutrient degradation, and post-incubation parameters. Experimental diets consisted of Panicum maximum (Ntchisi) grass as basal diet and supplemental pellets treated with 0, 5, 10 and 15 ml/kg of cashew nut shell liquid. Proximate composition of experimental diets was analysed. In vitro experiment was carried out on experimental diets (P. maximum and concentrate pellets at ratio 70:30) for 24 hours using goat rumen liquor as inoculum. Results showed that CNSL inclusion had a significant effect (P < 0.05) on the ether extract and metabolizable energy of experimental pellets. Dietary treatment with 15 ml/kg of CNSL had the lowest (P < 0.05) in vitro gas production. Inclusion of CNSL significantly inhibited methane production at 5 ml/kg (18%), 10 ml/kg (34%) and 15 ml/kg (57%) CNSL inclusion levels (P < 0.05). Ammonia-N and TVFA decreased significantly with CNSL inclusion. Significant reduction (P < 0.05) in short-chain fatty acid, metabolizable energy, and organic matter degradability were recorded with increasing CNSL inclusion levels.


dietary, eco-friendly feed additive, essential oils, methane inhibition, ruminants


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