Neurobehavioral and neuroprotector effects of caffeine in animal models
Dina Villanueva-García, Daniel Mota-Rojas, Agatha Miranda-Cortés, Patricia Mora-Medina, Ismael Hernández-Avalos, Alejandro Casas-Alvarado, Adriana Olmos-Hernández, Julio Martínez-Burnes
This review aims to analyze and contrast the neurological effects associated with the use of caffeine on neurobehavior and neuroprotection in animal models. Caffeine belongs to the group of methylxanthines that exert a direct effect on adenosine receptors associated with inhibitory or excitatory G proteins, generating modification of cyclic AMP activity and intracellular calcium flow which produces alterations in the modulation system of the neurotransmitters dopamine and glutamate. The regulation of the neurotransmission systems generates protection against the inflammation of the central nervous system, by activation of the microglia and reinforcement of the blood-brain barrier. This drug will also restore cognition or prevent memory loss in Parkinson's or Alzheimer's diseases. It is important to establish new study models in other species to assess whether the behavior of the molecule is similar and to obtain other clinical applications in its behavioral and neuroprotective effects.