Non-invasive assessment of physiological stress in captive common palm civets (Paradoxurus hermaphroditus) in Vietnam
Common Palm Civet (Paradoxurus hermaphroditus) is a rare mammal appearing in South and Southeast Asia, first described in 1777. An expensive coffee is made of beans eaten and rejected by civets. In Vietnam, the animals are increasingly captured and kept captive to sell these beans, which has adversely affected their population. Because of the detrimental effects of stress, studying stress responses is important for this wildlife conservation. The stress response of the Common Palm Civet was investigated through the concentration of glucocorticoid hormones in feces under different conditions such as translocation and forced-pairing during the breeding season, among others. This is a non-invasive method for measuring glucocorticoid hormones in captive Common Palm Civet in Vietnam. Our results validated that fecal glucocorticoid metabolites (FGM) accurately reflect circulating glucocorticoid stress hormones in Common Palm Civet. FGM increased under adrenocorticotropic hormone stimulation and during the breeding season (April and November-December). FGM during estrus and parturition was high as well in female civets. Stress response was also observed in case of forced-pairing or residence change. These data could be useful for research and the conservation of this species.
Angelier F and Wingfield JC (2013) Importance of the glucocorticoid stress response in a changing world: Theory, hypotheses and perspectives. Gen. Comp. Endocrinol 190:118-128.
Berger S, Wikelski M, Romero LM, Kalko EKV, Rödl T (2007) Behavioral and physiological adjustments to new predators in an endemic island species, the Galápagos marine iguana. Horm Behav 52:653–663.
Bhattacharjee S, Kumar V, Chandrasekhar M, Malviya M, Ganswindt A, Ramesh K, Sankar K, Umapathy G (2015) Glucocorticoid Stress Responses of Reintroduced Tigers in Relation to Anthropogenic Disturbance in Sariska Tiger Reserve in India. PloS One 10:e0127626.
Brown JL, Wasser SK, Wildt DE, Graham LH (1994) Comparative aspects of steroid hormone metabolism and ovarian activity in felids, measured noninvasively in feces. Biol Reprod 51:776-786.
Busch DS and Hayward LS (2009). Stress in a conservation context: a discussion of glucocorticoid actions and how levels change with conservation-relevant variables. Biol Conserv. 142:2844-2853.
Cavigelli S, Dubovick T, Levash W, Jolly A, Pitts A (2003) Female dominance status and fecal corticoids in a cooperative breeder with low reproductive skew: Ring-tailed lemurs (Lemur catta). Horm. Behav 43:166-179.
Davis AK and Maney DL (2018) The use of glucocorticoid hormones or leucocyte profiles to measure stress in vertebrates: What’s the difference? Methods Ecol Evol 9:1556-1568.
Dekkers OM, Timmermans JM, Smit JWA, Romijn JA, Pereira AM (2011) Comparison of the cortisol responses to testing with two doses of ACTH in patients with suspected adrenal insufficiency. Eur J Endocrinol 164:83-87.
Edwards PD and Boonstra R (2018) Glucocorticoids and CBG during pregnancy in mammals: Diversity, pattern, and function. Gen. Comp. Endocrinol 259:122-130.
Hien N (2020) Effects of ganadotropin to oestrus and reproreductive indicators of delayed oestrus common palm civets (Paradoxurus hermaphroditus). Hue University Journal of Science 129:21-29.
Hing S, Narayan EJ, Andrew Thompson RC, Godfrey SS (2016) The relationship between physiological stress and wildlife disease: Consequences for health and conservation. Wildlife Research 43:51-60.
Inoue K, Kitamoto T, Tsurutani Y, Saito J, Omura M, Nishikawa T (2021) Cortisol Co-Secretion and Clinical Usefulness of ACTH Stimulation Test in Primary Aldosteronism: A Systematic Review and Biases in Epidemiological Studies. Front Endocrinol 12:645488.
Johnstone C, Lil A, Reina RD (2014) Habitat loss, fragmentation and degradation effects on small mammals: Analysis with conditional inference tree statistical modelling. Biol. Conserv 176:80-98.
Keay JM, Singh J, Gaunt MC, Kaur T (2006) Fecal glucocorticoids and their metabolites as indicators of stress in various mammalian species: a literature review. J Zoo Wildl Med 37:234-244.
Krishnakumar H, Balasubramanian NK, Balakrishnan M (2002) Sequential Pattern of Behavior in the Common Palm Civet, Paradoxurus hermaphroditus (Pallas). Int J Comp Psychol 15:303-311.
Kumar V, Pradheeps M, Kokkiligadda A, Niyogi R, Umapathy G (2019) Non-invasive assessment of physiological stress in captive Asian elephants. Animals 9:553.
Kumar V, Reddy VP, Kokkiligadda A, Shivaji S, Umapathy G (2014) Non-invasive assessment of reproductive status and stress in captive Asian elephants in three south Indian zoos. Gen. Comp. Endocrinol 201:37-44.
Martin LB, Andreassi E, Watson W, Coon C (2011) Stress and Animal Health: Physiological Mechanisms and Ecological Consequences. Nature Education Knowledge 3:11.
Möstl E (2014) Glucocorticoids, their metabolites and their measurement in various animal species. Medycyna Weterynaryjna 70:524-529.
Nakabayashi M, Nakashima Y, Hearn AJ, Ross J, Alfred R, Samejima H, Mohamed A, Heydon M, Rustam, Bernard H, Semiadi G, Fredriksson G, Boonratana R, Marshall AJ, Lim NTL, Augeri DM, Hon J, Mathai J, Berkel TV, Brodie J, Giordano A, Hall J, Loken B, Persey S, Macdonald DW, Belant JL, Kramer-Schadt S, Wilting A (2016) Predicted distribution of the common palm civet Paradoxurus hermaphroditus (Mammalia: Carnivora: Viverridae) on Borneo. The Raffles bulletin of zoology 33:84-88.
Nguyen TTH, Nguyen TPT, Binh NT (2017) Reproductive characteristics of civets (Paradoxurus hermaphroditus) Pallas, 1777) in captivity. Proceedings of the 7th National Scientific conference on Ecology and Biological resources, Ha Noi.
Nguyen TTH, Nguyen TPT, Binh NT (2020) Fecal testosterone monitoring in common palm civets by enzyme immuno assay. Journal of Animal Husbandry Sciences and Technics 258:86-91.
Palme R, Rettenbacher S, Touma C, El-Bahr SM, Möstl E (2005) Stress hormones in mammals and birds: comparative aspects regarding metabolism, excretion, and noninvasive measurement in fecal samples. Ann N Y Acad Sci 1040:162-171.
Parikesit S, Withaningsih, Prastiwi WD (2019) Estimated Abundance and Distribution of Common Palm Civet (Paradoxurus hermaphroditus, Pallas 1777) in the Rural Landscape of Sukaresmi, West Bandung Regency. IOP Conference Series: Earth and Environmental Science 306:012003.
Rabinowitz A (1991) Behaviour and movements of sympatric civet species in Huai Kha Khaeng Wildlife Sanctuary. Thailand. Journal of Zoology 223:281-298.
Rehnus M and Palme R (2021) Yearly Variations in GCM Concentrations in Female Mountain Hares (Lepus timidus) and the Effect of Pregnancy. Animals 11:2710.
Saltzman W, Schultz-Darken NJ, Wegner FH, Wittwer DJ, Abbott DH (1998) Suppression of cortisol levels in subordinate female marmosets: Reproductive and social contributions. Horm. Behav 33:58-74.
Sapolsky RM, Romero LM, Munck AU (2000) How Do Glucocorticoids Influence Stress Responses? Integrating Permissive, Suppressive, Stimulatory, and Preparative Actions. Endocr Rev 21:55-89.
Seamons D and Grzimek’s (2003) Animal Life Encyclopedia (2nd edition). Reference Reviews 7:41.
Whirledge S and Cidlowski JA (2010) Glucocorticoids, stress, and fertility. Minerva Endocrinol 35:109-125.
Winaya A, Maftuchah, Nicolás CM, Prasetyo D (2020) Morphometric variations of Asian Common Palm Civet (Paradoxurus hermaphroditus, Pallas 1777) from Bali Island, Indonesia as the basis of morphometrics diversity data. Biodiversitas 21:1027-1034.